Article Type

Original Study

Subject Area

Rhinology, Endoscopic sinus surgery


Background Qat (also known as Khat, Kat, Miraa) is a green plant Catha edulis planted mainly in East and South Africa, and The Arabian Peninsula. It is widely and traditionally consumed by people in some regions. It has general effects on different systems such as cardiovascular and nervous system. Local effects were mainly described in the oral cavity such as periodontitis and white keratotic lesions. Scarce studies proved its relationship with cancer development. To date, there is a literature gap in reporting other local manifestations. In this study, the authors discuss additional local manifestations noted with chronic qat chewing. Aim In this study, the pharyngeal effects of chronic qat consumption were described. Material and methods This study is a retrospective study retrieved from an Ear, Nose, and Throat clinic records. All patients attending the clinic with history of chronic qat chewing more than 10 years were included in the study. Patients’ complaints were analyzed for the presence of voice change, stridor, and dysphagia. Nasopharyngeal and laryngeal endoscopy were used to assess the velopharynx, oropharynx, epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, and pyriform sinuses. Results This study included 22 patients. Most patients presented with muffled voice and stridor on exertion. More than half of the cases developed velopharyngeal stenosis. All cases had uvular edema and associated deformity of the posterior pillar and the laryngeal structure were described. Conclusion Changes in the nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx were noted in patients with chronic qat consumption.


Qat effect in ENT – Kat effect in ENT – khat effect in ENT – Local qat signs – velopharyngeal stenosis

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.